Glycerin, also called glycerol or glycerine, is naturally found in the skin. It are skin-replenishing and skin-restoring ingredients helping the balance and hydration. An all natural humectant coming for either animal or vegetable lipids (fats). It can either be synthetically manufactured (most common option) by fermentation of sugars or derived from natural substances by hydrolysis of fats. Glycerin is defending the skin against dryness by maintaining it moisture level.
Acrylic Acid (Ester), also called (sodium) acrylates copolymer, functions in the cosmetic industry as a texture enhancer, binder, and film-forming agent.
Butylene Glycol, is a multiplayer in the cosmetic industry including as a humectant, texture enhancer, solvent, and penetration booster. It is a clear and viscous liquid.
Jojoba Oil, an emollient, non fragrant oil extracted from the seeds of a perennial shrub. The research has shown that it enhances the skin's restorative properties. This plant has many fatty acids. It's texture can be compared to the oil a human skim produces. A brilliant ingredients for dry surfaces.
Evening Primrose, another non fragrant plant whose oil also have fatty acids which can have significant skin-soothing and emollient benefits. Another function of this ingredients is that it helps other ingredients absorb more readily.
Phenoxyethanol, it's a very common used synthetic preservative with global approval for use in rinse-off or leave-on cosmetic products. Of course like all other plant extracts, phenoxyethanol has also been purified before it has been used in cosmetic formulations. Even tough it is labelled as synthetic, this chemical occurs naturally in green tea.
Camellia, aka Camellia japonica flower extract and also known as Tsubaki, is an impressive antioxidant, antipollution and has soothing abilities. This plant is a rich source of the oil-soluble antioxidant gallic acid that defends skin against visible signs of UVB damage while also interrupting excess melanin production.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation, March 2021, pages 223-231
International Journal of Toxicology, November/December 2019, Volume 38, Supplement 3, pages 6S-22S
International Journal of Cosmetic Science, August 2016, ePublication
British Journal of Dermatology, July 2008, pages 23-34
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, June 2007, pages 75-82
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, June 2003, pages 7,360-7,365
Acrylic Acid (Ester)
International Journal of Toxicology, November 2002, Supplement 3, pages 1-50
CosmeticsInfo.org, Accessed March 2021, ePublication
U.S. Food and Drug Administration Code of Federal Regulations, Accessed March 2021, ePublication
International Journal of Toxicology, May 2011, pages 5S-16S
Skin Research and Technology, November 2007, pages 417-24
Journal of the American College of Toxicology, September 1985, pages 223-248
Energy Conversion and Management, December 2016, pages 293-304
Journal of Italian Dermatology and Venereology, December 2013, pages 687-691
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, December 2008, pages 268-274
Journal of Dermatological Science, May 2008, pages 135-142
Pharmacological Research, February 2005, pages 95-105
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, January 2016, pages 188-193
Annals of Dermatology, December 2014, pages 706-712
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, October 2019, pages 15-24
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, December 2016, page 156
PLOS One, October 2016, ePublication
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, June 2015, pages 1,071-1,081
Cosmetics & Toiletries, 2014, pages 24-27
International Journal of Cosmetic Science, April 2011, pages 190-196
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, January 2019, ePublication
Cosmetics, February 2018, ePublication
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, April 2011, pages 2,618-2,630